12 thì trong tiếng anh – trọn bộ lý thuyết và bài tập có đáp án

12 thì trong tiếng anh
Bảng tóm tắt 12 thì trong tiếng Anh

1. Thì hiện tại đơn –  Present simple

Công thức với Động từ thường

  • Khẳng định: S + V(s/es) + O
  • Phủ định: S + do/does not + V_inf + O
  • Nghi vấn: Do/Does + S + V_inf + O?

Công thức với Động từ tobe:

  • Khẳng định: S + am/is/are + O.
  • Phủ định: S + am/is/are  not + O.
  • Nghi vấn: Am/is/are + S + O?

Cách dùng:

  • Diễn tả một sự thật hiển nhiên, một chân lý.
  • Diễn tả một thói quen, sở thích hay hành động được lặp đi lặp lại ở hiện tại.
  • Diễn tả một lịch trình, chương trình, một thời gian biểu.

Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì hiện tại đơn:  

Trong câu thường có những từ chỉ tần suất như:

Always, usually, often, sometimes, frequently, seldom, rarely, hardly, never , generally, regularly,….Every day, week, month, year,…Once, twice, three times, four times….. a day, week, month, year,…

Cách phát âm phụ âm cuối s/es 

Lưu ý các phát âm phụ âm cuối này phải dựa vào phiên âm quốc tế mà không phải dựa vào cách viết.

  • /s/: Khi từ có tận cùng là các phụ âm /f/, /t/, /k/, /p/, /ð/
  • /iz/:Khi từ có tận cùng là các âm /s/, /z/, /∫/, /t∫/, /ʒ/, /dʒ/ (thường có tận cùng là các chữ cái ce, x, z, sh, ch, s, ge)
  • /z/: Khi từ có tận cùng là nguyên âm và các phụ âm còn lại

Bài tập tiếng Anh thì hiện tại đơn

Bài 1: Chia động từ trong ngoặc ở Thì Hiện Tại Đơn

  1. I (be) ________ at school at the weekend. 
  2. You (not study) ________ on Saturday. 
  3. My boss (be not) ________ hard working. 
  4. He (have) ________ a new haircut today. 
  5. My brother usually (have) ________ breakfast at 9.00. 
  6. He (live) ________ in a house? 
  7. Where (be)____ your sister? 
  8. My mother (work) ________ in a library. 
  9. Dog (like) ________ blonde. 
  10. He (live)________ in Yen Bai City. 
  11. It (rain) ________ almost every day in Ha Long. 
  12. They (fly)________ to Alaska every winter. 
  13. My father (make)________ bread for breakfast every morning. 
  14. The store (open)________ at 10 a.m. opens
  15. John (try)________ hard in class, but I (not think) ________ he’ll pass. 

Đáp án: 

  1. am
  2. don’t
  3. isn’t
  4. has
  5. has
  6. Does-live
  7. is
  8. works
  10.  lives
  11.  rains
  12.  fly
  13.  makes
  14.  tries-don’t think.

Bài 2: Chọn đáp án đúng.

  1. He don’t stay/ doesn’t stay at school.
  2. They don’t wash/ doesn’t wash the family car.
  3. Adam don’t do/ doesn’t do his homework.
  4. I don’t go/ doesn’t go to bed at 9.30 p.m.
  5. Chinh don’t close/ doesn’t close his notes.
  6. Our hamster don’t eat/ doesn’t eat leaves.
  7. They don’t chat/ doesn’t chat with your friends.
  8. He don’t use/ doesn’t use a paper at the office.
  9. Son don’t skate/ doesn’t skate in the garden.
  10. The girl don’t throw/ doesn’t throw rocks.

 Đáp án

  1. doesn’t stay 
  2. don’t wash
  3. doesn’t do 
  4. don’t go
  5. doesn’t close 
  6. doesn’t eat 
  7. don’t chat
  8. doesn’t use 
  9. doesn’t skate 
  10. doesn’t throw 

2. Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn – Present continuous tense

Công thức:

  • Khẳng định: S + am/is/are + V_ing + …
  • Phủ định: S + am/is/are not + V_ing + …
  • Nghi vấn: Am/Is/Are + S + V_ing + …?

Cách dùng:

  • Diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra và kéo dài ở hiện tại.
  • Diễn tả dự định, kế hoạch sắp xảy ra trong tương lai đã định trước.
  • Diễn tả sự phàn nàn về việc gì đó, dùng với “Always”.
  • Dùng để cảnh báo, đề nghị và mệnh lệnh.

Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì hiện tại tiếp diễn:

Trong câu thường có những cụm từ chỉ thời gian sau sau: Now, at the moment, at present, right now, Look!, Listen!, Be quiet!, Keep silent!.…

Bài tập thì hiện tại tiếp diễn

Bài tập 1: Cho dạng đúng của động từ trong ngoặc

  1. Be careful! The motorbike (go) ………………….. so fast.
  2. Listen! Someone (cry) ………………….. in the next door.
  3. My sister (sit) ……………….. next to the handsome boy over there at present?
  4. Now they (try) ………………….. to pass the subject
  5. It’s 11 o’clock, and my parents (cook) ………………….. dinner in the kitchen.
  6. Keep silent! You (talk) ………………….. so loudly.
  7. I (not stay) ………………….. at school at the moment.
  8. Now she (lie) ………………….. to her father about her bad marks.
  9. At present they (travel) ………………….. to Lon Don.
  10. He (not work) ……………….. in his bedroom now.

Đáp án

  1. is going
  2. is crying
  3. is sitting
  4. are trying
  5. are cooking
  6. are talking
  7. am not staying
  8. is lying
  9. are traveling
  10. isn’t working

Bài tập 2: Viết lại những câu sau dựa vào những từ cho sẵn.

  1. My/ father/ water/ some plants/ the/ garden.
  2. My/ boy/ clean/ floor/.
  3. Moon/ have/ dinner/ her/ friends/ a/ restaurant.
  4. We/ ask/ a/girl/ about/ the/ way/ the/ railway/ station.
  5. My/ sister/ draw/ a/ beautiful/ picture

 Đáp án

  1. My father is watering some plants in the garden now.
  2. My boy is cleaning the floor.
  3. Moon is having dinner with her friends in a restaurant.
  4. We are asking a girl about the way to the railway station.
  5. My sister is drawing a beautiful picture.

3. Thì hiện tại hoàn thành – Present perfect tense

Công thức:

  • Khẳng định: S + has/have + V3/ed + O
  • Phủ định: S + has/have not + V3/ed + O
  • Nghi vấn: Have/has + S + V3/ed + O?

Cách dùng:

  • Diễn tả 1 hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ nhưng vẫn còn ở hiện tại và tương lai.
  • Diễn tả hành động xảy ra và kết quả trong quá khứ nhưng không nói rõ thời gian xảy ra.
  • Diễn tả hành động vừa mới xảy ra.
  • Nói về kinh nghiệm, trải nghiệm.

Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì hiện tại hoàn thành:

Trong câu thường có những từ sau: Since, for, already, just, ever, never, yet, recently, before, This is the first/second time…

Bài tập thì hiện tại hoàn thành

Bài tập 1: Bài tập thì hiện tại hoàn thành với dấu hiệu nhận biết có sử dụng since và for

  1. I ………..(study) Vietnamese for the last 20 years. 
  2. We…………….(know) each other for 5 years. 
  3. I…………..(sleep) for 3 minutes now. have slept
  4. How long you ………….(learn) Japanese? I………..….( learn) it since 2015. 
  5. She……………(buy) that bike for 4 months. 
  6. I………………..(sleep) for a long time. have slept
  7. We…..……(live) here since 2018. 
  8. He already……………..( read) that blog for 2 months. 

Đáp án:

  1. have studied
  2. have known
  3. have slept
  4.  have you learned-learnt
  5. has bought
  6. have slept
  7. have lived
  8. has already read

Bài tập 2: Viết lại câu với thì hiện tại hoàn thành

  1. I started cooking for dinner 2 hours ago.
  2. This morning I was expecting a message. Now I have it.
  3. Dan didn’t have a beard before. Now he has a beard.
  4. The temperature was 22 degrees. Now it is only 15. 
  5. My English wasn’t very good. Now it is better.
  6. Kim is looking for her key. She can’t find it.

Đáp án

  1. I have started cooking for dinner for 2 hours.
  2. This morning I have already expected a message.
  3. This is the first time Dan has had a beard.
  4. The temperature has decreased/has been decreased.
  5. My English has increased.
  6. Kim  has looked for her key.

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